Dr. Debra J. Aleck and AssociatesÂ
3511 Western Branch Blvd.
Portsmouth, VA. 23707
(757) 397-FOOT (3668)
Arch - The arch of the foot is the area of the bottom of the foot between the heel pad and toe pad.
Acrokeratosis verruciformis - a hereditary dermatosis characterized by the presence of numerous flat wart-like papules on the dorsal aspect of the hand, foot, elbow, and knee.
Ankle - the part of the leg just above the foot; the joint between the leg and the foot. It is a hinge joint formed by the junction of the tibia and fibula with the talus, or ankle bone. The bones are cushioned by cartilage and connected by a number of ligaments, tendons, and muscles that strengthen the joint and enable it to be moved. Because it is in almost constant use, the ankle is particularly susceptible to injuries, such as sprain and fracture. It is also often one of the first joints to be affected by arthritis or gout.
Ankle clonus - a series of abnormal reflex movements of the foot, induced by sudden dorsiflexion, causing alternate contraction and relaxation of the triceps surae muscle.
Athlete's foot - a fungal infection of the skin of the foot; called also tinea pedis. It causes itching and often blisters and cracks, usually between the toes. Causative agents are Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum, and species of Trichophyton, which thrive on warmth and dampness. If not arrested, it can cause a rash and itching in other parts of the body as well. It is likely to be recurrent, since the fungus survives under the toenails and reappears when conditions are favorable. Although Athlete''s foot is usually little more than an uncomfortable nuisance, its open sores provide excellent sites for more serious infections. Early treatment and health care supervision insure correct diagnosis and prevention of complications. Specific diagnosis is made by microscopic examination or culture of skin scrapings for the fungus.
Acrocyanosis is a painless disorder that affects the arteries supplying blood to the skin of the hands and feet. These small arteries carry oxygen and nutrients through the blood to the skin of the extremities. Spasms in the arteries block blood flow in people with this condition. Without adequate blood supply, the skin lacks oxygen, which changes the skin color to a dark blue to purple color. This characteristic color is called cyanosis.
Acrocyanosis is generally a benign condition, but can be indicative of a serious medical illness elsewhere in the body, such as cardiovascular or connective tissue disease. It occurs more frequently in women than in men. Symptoms include feet that are persistently cold in temperature, blue skin discoloration, sweaty or moist skin, and swelling.
Treatment focuses on keeping the foot warm and the blood circulating normally. It may include wearing insulated boots, thin polypropylene liner socks to wick the moisture away from the skin, and/or use of an insulated sock to maintain normal skin temperature. The disorder itself cannot be remedied, but does not worsen over time.