Glossary

Arch - The arch of the foot is the area of the bottom of the foot between the heel pad and toe pad.

Acrokeratosis verruciformis - a hereditary dermatosis characterized by the presence of numerous flat wart-like papules on the dorsal aspect of the hand, foot, elbow, and knee.

Ankle - the part of the leg just above the foot; the joint between the leg and the foot. It is a hinge joint formed by the junction of the tibia and fibula with the talus, or ankle bone. The bones are cushioned by cartilage and connected by a number of ligaments, tendons, and muscles that strengthen the joint and enable it to be moved. Because it is in almost constant use, the ankle is particularly susceptible to injuries, such as sprain and fracture. It is also often one of the first joints to be affected by arthritis or gout.

Ankle clonus - a series of abnormal reflex movements of the foot, induced by sudden dorsiflexion, causing alternate contraction and relaxation of the triceps surae muscle.

Athlete's foot - a fungal infection of the skin of the foot; called also tinea pedis. It causes itching and often blisters and cracks, usually between the toes. Causative agents are Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum, and species of Trichophyton, which thrive on warmth and dampness. If not arrested, it can cause a rash and itching in other parts of the body as well. It is likely to be recurrent, since the fungus survives under the toenails and reappears when conditions are favorable. Although Athlete''s foot is usually little more than an uncomfortable nuisance, its open sores provide excellent sites for more serious infections. Early treatment and health care supervision insure correct diagnosis and prevention of complications. Specific diagnosis is made by microscopic examination or culture of skin scrapings for the fungus.

Surgery on the foot, ankle, or lower leg is usually performed by podiatric surgeons and orthopedic surgeons specializing in the foot and ankle.

Foot and ankle surgeries address a wide variety of foot problems, including:

  • Sprains and fractures.
  • Arthritis and joint disease.
  • Benign and malignant tumors.
  • Birth deformities.
  • Bunions.
  • Calluses and warts.
  • Corns and hammertoes.
  • Flatfeet.
  • Heel or toe spurs.
  • Neuromas (nerve tumors).

Many foot and ankle surgeries today can be performed in the doctor's office or a surgical center on an outpatient basis. They frequently can be performed using local anesthesia, in some cases combined with sedation. Most foot surgeries require a period of immobilization after the procedures with protective devices, such as a bandages, splints, surgical shoes, casts, or open sandals. Limited weight bearing, elevating and icing the foot, and keeping the area dry are commonly required for the first two weeks following surgery until sutures are removed. Most surgeons will encourage post-operative exercise of the foot and legs to speed recovery. In addition, many patients need additional therapy or treatments after surgery in order to aid in the healing and recovery process. These may include physiotherapy, orthotic devices, and special footwear. After sufficient healing time, which varies from procedure to procedure, most patients can resume wearing their usual footwear.




Sterling and Gaston