Glossary

Arch - The arch of the foot is the area of the bottom of the foot between the heel pad and toe pad.

Acrokeratosis verruciformis - a hereditary dermatosis characterized by the presence of numerous flat wart-like papules on the dorsal aspect of the hand, foot, elbow, and knee.

Ankle - the part of the leg just above the foot; the joint between the leg and the foot. It is a hinge joint formed by the junction of the tibia and fibula with the talus, or ankle bone. The bones are cushioned by cartilage and connected by a number of ligaments, tendons, and muscles that strengthen the joint and enable it to be moved. Because it is in almost constant use, the ankle is particularly susceptible to injuries, such as sprain and fracture. It is also often one of the first joints to be affected by arthritis or gout.

Ankle clonus - a series of abnormal reflex movements of the foot, induced by sudden dorsiflexion, causing alternate contraction and relaxation of the triceps surae muscle.

Athlete's foot - a fungal infection of the skin of the foot; called also tinea pedis. It causes itching and often blisters and cracks, usually between the toes. Causative agents are Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum, and species of Trichophyton, which thrive on warmth and dampness. If not arrested, it can cause a rash and itching in other parts of the body as well. It is likely to be recurrent, since the fungus survives under the toenails and reappears when conditions are favorable. Although Athlete''s foot is usually little more than an uncomfortable nuisance, its open sores provide excellent sites for more serious infections. Early treatment and health care supervision insure correct diagnosis and prevention of complications. Specific diagnosis is made by microscopic examination or culture of skin scrapings for the fungus.

Two kinds of skin allergies, or dermatitis, are caused by substances coming in contact with the skin: primary irritant dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Primary irritant dermatitis is a non-allergic reaction of the skin resulting from exposure to an irritating substance. Allergic contact dermatitis is an allergic sensitization to various substances.

People who work in areas where their feet are exposed to repeated or prolonged contact to hot water, chemicals, oils, or wet cement can develop primary irritant dermatitis. Some solutions are safe if used properly. However, improper use can lead to a serious contact dermatitis. This is particularly dangerous for diabetics. For primary irritant dermatitis, soaking feet in solutions, such as bleach, vinegar, salt water, or Betadine, can be beneficial as long as excessive amounts are not used.

Allergic contact dermatitis is the result of exposure to substances that sensitize the skin. Each time the foot is exposed to the substance, an inflammatory reaction occurs. Some people are allergic to the substances in sock dyes or certain shoe materials. Adhesive tapes can cause an allergic reaction with blisters or a rash developing beneath the tape. Because of the heat and the accumulation of moisture beneath the tape, an acute Athlete's Foot infection can also be caused by an allergic reaction to the adhesive. Treatments include the use of cool compresses, topical steroid compounds (like hydrocortisone creams), and antifungal creams.




Sterling and Gaston